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Schools and Learning in Imperial China  

Linda Walton

From the consolidation of the Han empire (206 bce–220 ce) through the collapse of the Qing (1644–1911), ideas about education associated with Confucius (c. 551–479 bce) and his followers ... More

The Expansion of the Qing Dynasty of China and the Zunghar Mongol State  

Peter Perdue

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The Manchus, a powerful military state in northeast Eurasia, declared the founding of the Qing dynasty in the early 17th century. They conquered Beijing in 1644, and the core of Ming China ... More

Local Elites and Scholarship in Late Imperial China  

Steven B. Miles

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Before the end of the Tang dynasty, cultural production was largely a court-centered activity. This began to change as the nature of China’s political, social, and cultural elite, the ... More

Daoism and Popular Religion in Imperial China  

Terry Kleeman

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Throughout the course of premodern China’s history, the planning and performance of religious ritual has been a primary concern. These offerings of bloody victuals, drink, and, later, ... More

Civil Law and Jurisprudence in Imperial China  

Nap-yin Lau

In terms of jurisdiction and punishment, the border between civil and criminal laws in imperial China is not clear cut. The same officials can handle both civil and criminal cases, and ... More

Chinese Ceramic Production and Trade  

John Miksic

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Ceramics are the most abundant types of artifacts made by human beings in the last 12,000 years. Chinese potters discern two types of products: earthenware (tao), which is porous and does ... More

The Canton Trade, 1700–1842  

Paul A. Van Dyke

Online publication date:
May 2017
In 1684, China reopened its doors to trade with the outside world, which had a huge impact on the development of global commerce. Canton quickly emerged as one of the few ports in the ... More

The Xiongnu  

Hyun Jin Kim

The Xiongnu were an Inner Asian people who formed an empire, a state entity encompassing a multiethnic, multicultural, and polyglot population. The ruling elite of this empire were, for ... More

The Uyghur Empire (744–840)  

Michael Drompp

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Uyghurs (Chinese Huihe迴 紇, Huihu回鶻) were a pastoral nomadic people living in the region of the Selenga and Orkhon river valleys in modern Mongolia; they spoke a Turkic language. The ... More

Famine in Imperial and Modern China  

Kathryn Edgerton-Tarpley

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Famines have played an important role in China’s history. Because the Confucian classics interpreted natural disasters as warnings from Heaven, in ancient and imperial China feeding the ... More

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